Active vocabulary unit 10

Video Hot, Flat, and Crowded

Questions to the video
1. What’s the title of Thomas Friedman’s book? Why was it given this name?
2. What world trends do words “hot, flat and crowded” refer to?
3. What happens “when flat meets crowded”? What consequence of this process is described by T.F.?
4. How much, according to the UN estimates, will the world population increase between now and 2020? How can you account for this estimated dramatic increase? Will the growth rate remain the same or slow down after 2020?
5. Read the dates and numbers: July 20th 1953, 2.681 bn, 0.7 (ounces), 20,000 (metric tons), 9.2 bn, 60,000 (megawatts), 500 (megawatts). Watch the video again and say what they refer to?

T. Friedman and his book

Hot, Flat, and Crowded: Why We Need a Green Revolution—And How It Can Renew America

Describing a graph exercise

Vocabulary 10-3 excercise

Translation from Russian exercise

How to solve the nation's unemployment problem
How to describe a graphDynamic chart description
Audio tracks for Unit 10.42.19


TED talks - Longevity, how to live to be 100+ (edited)


1 There are seven paragraphs in the newspaper article below about school dinners in England. Match the paragraph summary in the table with the correct paragraph number. The first one is done as an example. Paragraph summary
Paragraph number
The beginning of the decline in school dinners
Two reasons for the recent drop in school dinners
New research shows that school meals are at their lowest point
Introduction to topic and background information
The battle for standards between the government and private companies
The early history of school dinners
Some positive indicators for the future

What happens at midday in English schools? At the moment, schools in England have free school dinners for children from low-income families. Other pupils pay to have school dinners and some bring sandwiches. However, secondary school* meals services in England are now experiencing a crisis. In fact, experts have warned that the provision of school dinners in England will die out unless something is done about it immediately.
School dinners were introduced in schools in England at the end of the 19th century. The idea was to help children from low-income families who were often poorly fed at home, but the meals were available to all children. By 1920 around 1 million children were having school dinners at a huge cost to the government. In 1944 every secondary school had to provide school meals.
In the 1970s the number of children having school dinners started to fall. This continued in the 1980s, when local education authorities were given the choice to stop offering free school dinners. At this time, free school meals became part of the government benefit system which supported poor families, so fewer children were receiving free dinners and more were paying for them.
In the 1990s school dinner systems were privatised and this led to a decline in the quality of the food provided. By the mid 1990s, less than half the children in English schools were having school dinners. It was not until 2001 that the government started to focus on the quality of food in schools and set minimum standards for nutrition. By 2006 all school dinners had to meet certain standards.
So after this positive move, why the crisis? Research which is due to be published tomorrow will show that the number of students having school dinners has fallen dramatically. Now only 35% of children in secondary schools are having school dinners. This represents a drop of 17% in the last three years and is at the lowest level since 1944.
Some people blame this on two factors. Firstly, a lot of negative publicity has been generated by campaigns in recent years which have focused on the poor quality of food in schools. Secondly, the introduction of minimum standards for food in 2006 reduced the provision of certain types of popular food such as chips.
On a more positive note, catering in primary schools is maintaining a steady uptake of around 40%. This shows no signs of declining further. In addition, the government is committed to spending £220m on school meals over the next four years.

* aged 11 to 16
aged 5 to 11

2 Answer the following questions:
1 What will happen if something is not done to help the school dinner system now?
2 Why were school dinners first offered to schoolchildren?
3 When did it become obligatory for schools to provide school dinners?
4 What two things happened in the 1980s that led to a decline in the number of children having school dinners?
5 According to the article, what was the effect of school dinners being run by private companies?
6 In which year did the government set standards for the quality of the food provided in schools?
7 What is special about the number of children having school dinners now?
8 What are the two reasons given for the low number of children having school dinners now?